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托福听力动物学背景知识

2017-07-09 13:58:07 编辑:临沂环球教育 浏览:(977次)

在托福听力中动物学是非常重要也是非常难的一个话题,很多同学听完动物学是“生无可恋”, 但是“摸清套路”动物学还是很有意思的话题,接下来一起分享一下动物学的常识性东西。



1

In evolutionary biology (进化生物学), mimicry is a similarity of one species to another which protects one or both. This similarity can be in appearance, behavior, sound, scent or location (外貌、行为、声音、气味和位置场所).

2

Mimicry occurs when a group of organisms (有机体、生物体), the mimics (模仿者), evolve to share common perceived characteristics with another group, the models(被模仿者). The evolution is driven by the selective action of a signal-receiver(信号接收者).

3

The signal-receiver is typically another intermediate organism like the common predator (捕食者)of two species, but may actually be the model itself, such as a moth resembling (长得像) its spider predator. As an interaction, mimicry is in most cases advantageous (有利的) to the mimic and harmful to the receiver, but may increase, reduce or have no effect on the fitness of the model depending on the situation.

4

Mimicry is related to camouflage(伪装), in which a species resembles its surroundings or is otherwise difficult to detect(找到、探测出). In particular, mimesis, in which the mimic takes on the properties of a specific object or organism, but one to which the dupe is indifferent, is an area of overlap(重合) between camouflage and mimicry.

Though visual mimicry is most obvious to humans, other senses such as olfaction (smell) or hearing may be involved, and more than one type of signal may be employed. Mimicry may involve morphology(形态学), behaviour, and other properties. In any case, the signal always functions to deceive (欺骗)the receiver by preventing it from correctly identifying the mimic.

5

Defensive (防御性)or protective (保护性)mimicry takes place when organisms are able to avoid encounters that would be harmful to them by deceiving enemies(敌人) into treating them as something else. Some behaviors entail mimicry of organisms protected by warning colouration (警告颜色)

6

Aggressive(攻击性的) mimicry describes predators (or parasites) which share the same characteristics as a harmless species, allowing them to avoid detection by their prey (or host) (捕食者). The mimic may resemble the prey or host itself, or another organism which is either neutral(中立的)or beneficial(获益的) to the signal receiver.